Articles matching the ‘Research’ Category

May 15th, 2023

Types of HIV Papers — A Quick Guide

I spend a lot of my time reading HIV clinical research papers. A lot.  So here, for your viewing pleasure, is a poster I updated and modified from a brilliant xkcd web comic (using this tool), describing some common HIV clinical research themes. Suitable for framing, it should prove helpful as you embark on your next […]


March 27th, 2023

Three Effective Treatments for COVID-19 Not in Treatment Guidelines — at Least Not Yet

A few weeks ago, in a patented (and copyrighted and trademarked) Really Rapid Review™, I summarized some of the Greatest Hits from CROI 2023. The conference included new data on not just HIV, but also a grab bag of opportunistic infections, STIs, viral hepatitis — and, as has been the case since 2020, COVID-19. You know, […]


March 16th, 2023

Oral Antibiotic Therapy for Endocarditis — Are We There Yet?

Two terms in clinical research appear frequently in abstracts, conference presentations, and published papers — “clinical practice” and more recently, “real-world.” Many research snobs turn up their noses at both, finding them imprecise or pretentious. I confess to flinching each time I read “real-world” — isn’t everything “real-world”? If not, what’s the opposite? Mouse studies? (They’re […]


February 14th, 2023

Interferon Lambda for COVID-19 — Looking Good, but Still Not Available

Way back in the spring of 2022, I was asked to give an update on outpatient treatment of COVID to a group of general internists. The talk featured this slide on the TOGETHER trial of peginterferon lambda: These data came from a press release from the company developing the drug. It’s dated March 17, 2022. I added […]


January 17th, 2023

After the PANORAMIC Study — Whither Molnupiravir?

We turn now to the second of the controversial papers published in late 2022 on COVID-19 — namely the PANORAMIC study of molnupiravir versus usual care in outpatients with the disease. This one is controversial not because the study was poorly done, or unimportant, but because molnupiravir has, from the start, been a contentious treatment […]


February 12th, 2022

The Rise and Fall of Ivermectin — 1 Year Later

Here’s a confession few board-certified ID doctors will make — there was a brief period when I thought ivermectin could very well be an effective treatment for COVID-19. It wasn’t when the in vitro data first came out. Therapeutic concentrations were not achievable in humans. Nor when the anecdotal reports started pouring in, and sometimes making news. […]


December 20th, 2021

Believe It or Not, We Already Have a Highly Effective Outpatient Antiviral Treatment for COVID-19

And that treatment is … (drum roll) … remdesivir. Yes, you heard me right. Remdesivir, the very same antiviral with a checkered history in COVID-19 clinical trials, with some studies showing efficacy (sort of), others not much of anything. What’s the truth here? For that, let’s turn to what gets my vote for the most unheralded highly favorable […]


November 23rd, 2021

Gratitude for 40 Years of Progress in HIV Care and Research

I was working with one of our outstanding senior ID fellows in clinic last week, and she presented the case she’d just seen, a 54-year-old man with HIV (certain details changed for confidentiality): Will is doing great on [fill in one-pill daily regimen], missing no doses. He’s having some difficulty with sleep (his wife says he […]


October 31st, 2021

Interesting and Important Studies from IAS 2021 and IDWeek That Caught My Eye

As noted in my previous post, attending virtual meetings poses some serious challenges. The biggest obstacle:  trying to do one’s regular job while periodically checking in (or more likely not checking in) on the meeting. And while I might have been able to pull off some Really Rapid Reviews© after a few virtual meetings, not so […]


February 7th, 2021

Does Taking Vitamin D Prevent or Treat COVID-19?

Vitamin D supplementation — critical in prevention and treatment of COVID-19? Or does it do nothing — except further enrich the vitamin and supplements industry, which is worth more than 100 billion dollars? The challenge is figuring out which of these is the truth, and after several weeks of thinking about the issue, I find it’s far […]


HIV Information: Author Paul Sax, M.D.

Paul E. Sax, MD

Contributing Editor

NEJM Journal Watch
Infectious Diseases

Biography | Disclosures | Summaries

Learn more about HIV and ID Observations.